The constitutive model of the composite material restrains the microdamage evolution in the matrixand it allows the use of standard numerical process, while the model considers the matrix material to behavelike a porous medium or composite material characterized by strain-hardening and strain-softening properties. Using a simplification procedure, a new model was developed based on thetraditional model of the composite material. This model was implemented on the finite element method using the electro-thermal progressive damage model (ETPDM).
The free matrix and the embedded reinforcement (ribbed bars) are assumed to be homogeneous matrices. Thefracture process is treated using the linear elastic beam theory (Carpenter, 1981; Mortensen, 1984; Stressmechanics of composite materials, 1994, chapters 9, 10, and 11). Therefore, the fracture process isdefined to start by the creation of a crack in the reinforcement and propagates into the matrix with thecreation of new cracks and consequently the first debonding takes place at the interface between thereinforcement and the matrix. The location of the crack front is a function of the end eccentricity andthe cover thickness, relating to the applied load and the crack resistance of the reinforcement. Anyconfiguration of cracks initiated in the reinforcement will propagate into the matrix. Once a crack haspropagated from the reinforcement, it is considered to be complete, and as the matrix mixes with thecrack, or the hardened phase of the reinforcement, it will advance into a new crack. It isassumed that all material exist between the crack front and the reinforcement.
Angle distortion, material nonlinearity, debonding, reinforcement slip due to the end eccentricityand cover thickness, combined together define the debonding failure process of the reinforcement.
There were concerns about who was going to be voted into the tournament, but the three-week event had set the highest scoring so far. China, which finished fourth of the eight teams at the World Cup, topped the charts with a 59.713 shot average, followed by Sweden at 59.395 (also second) and USA at 59.300. d2c66b5586