A wide variety of data are now available to support the potential for at least some phthalates to disrupt endocrine function. These data include a variety of both in vitro and in vivo data. However, all of these data are consistent only with the ability of these agents to disrupt hormone function.
The KCs of EDCs are the functional properties of agents that alter hormone action. This emphasis is both unique and powerful in that these KCs comprise the major mechanisms by which hormone systems can be disrupted, including by interfering with what they do, how they do it and how they are controlled. The literature on the fundamental and clinical actions of hormones is extremely large and the KCs, as we have proposed them, open the process of EDC hazard identification to this literature. An essential element of the KC approach is that it superimposes on the fundamental endocrine framework the mechanisms by which chemicals can interfere with these systems. The ten KCs described herein can also be mapped to current and future assays used to identify EDCs.
Earlier copyholders who had bought their land and had no further need of it were known as owners, as opposed to tenants-in-chief. There was a long history of owners building manors (i.e. residences) on or near their land, sometimes inviting the remaining tenants-in-chief to live there. A few of these manors will survive in the official'manor houses' or gentry seats of England and have become important 'country houses' (though in important respects they are not really manors). Others have as their principal or only use as holidays, as at Wallington and Kingston Lisle. A further category are the planned and unbuilt country houses of the great ‘new landed gentry,’ for which see Country houses:building and landscaping in the 20th and 21st centuries, Mary Horlock, L. Bull and P. Johnson. The one surviving manor house from the Edwardian age is Little Kimble in Buckinghamshire. d2c66b5586