Instead, it is a completely new implementation of workflow-based structural modeling and analysis employing modern software design principles, and aligned with the rest of the Autodesk portfolio. Most important of all, React Structures embodies features based on extensive user experience research to create a highly easy to use and learn structural analysis platform, opening the door for more engineers than ever before to incorporate its benefits into their BIM design process.
Typical research areas with a systems focus include molecular and cellular systems biology, organ systems physiology, medical, pharmacological, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), toxicokinetic (TK), physiologically based PBPK-PD, PBTK, and pharmacogenomic system studies; neurosystems, imaging and remote sensing systems, robotics, learning and knowledge-based systems, visualization, and virtual clinical environments. Typical research areas with a bioinformatics focus include development of computational methods for analysis of high-throughput molecular data, including genomic sequences, gene expression data, protein-protein interaction, and genetic variation. These computational methods leverage techniques from both statistics and algorithms.
The graphics and vision field focuses on the synthesis and analysis of image and video data by computer. Graphics includes the topics of rendering, modeling, animation, visualization, and interactive techniques, among others, and it is broadly applicable in the entertainment industry (motion pictures and games) and elsewhere. Vision includes image/video representation and registration, feature extraction, three-dimensional reconstruction, object recognition, and image-based modeling, among others, with application to real-time vision/control for robots and autonomous vehicles, medical imaging, visual sensor networks and surveillance, and more. Several of the projects undertaken by our researchers in this field unify graphics and vision through mathematical modeling, wherein graphics is considered a models-to-images synthesis problem and vision the converse images-to-models analysis problem.
Although autonomous weapons have historically been an artifact of fiction, recent commercial and military developments are driving widespread consideration of autonomous weapon systems. Military experience and success with semi-autonomous systems make fully autonomous weapon systems increasingly conceivable for military professionals. Moreover, the commercial development of robotics and expert systems (software that models relatively nuanced decision-making by humans during performance of specific skills) potentially applicable to military purposes makes lethal autonomy more attainable. The Department of Defense (DOD) "third offset" strategy (a plan for incorporating advanced technology into U.S. warfighting), with its focus on technological innovation and "outside the box" solutions to manpower and monetary limitations, includes these systems among other elements. Finally, the development of LAWS is perceived as occurring or likely to occur among many potential peer and asymmetric adversaries.
The second element (or intuition) of autonomy present in the literature is execution flexibility, in the sense that systems that have tightly constrained available actions are considered non-autonomous. Consider, as an example of systems with tightly constrained operation, a landmine, trip wire explosive, or defensive gun emplacement versus a robotic tank ordered to guard a perimeter. On the other hand, those devices with limited targeting but broad execution flexibility, such as a robot programmed to hunt down a particular individual in a geographic region, seem to encounter the same risk/benefit analysis and ethical intuitions as the notional "fully autonomous system" or "robot soldier."
Wendell Wallach, Terminating the Terminator: What to Do About Autonomous Weapons, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, January 29, 2013, ; Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Harvard Law School's International Human Rights Clinic (IHRC), Losing Humanity: The Case Against Killer Robots. November 2012, -humanity-o; HRW and IHRC, Shaking the Foundations: The Human Rights Implications of Killer Robots, May 2014, ; HRW and IHRC, Mind the Gap: The Lack of Accountability for Killer Robots, April 2015, -gap/lack-accountability-killer-robots; HRW and IHRC, "Advancing the Debate on Killer Robots: 12 Key Arguments for a Preemptive Ban on Fully Autonomous Weapons," May 2014, -debate-killer-robots.
Freedberg, "Hagel Lists Key Technologies"; United States Air Force, Strategic Master Plan, March 2015, p. 42, _Master_Plan.pdf?timestamp=1434024300378; Simon Parkin, "Killer Robots: The Soldiers That Never Sleep," BBC.com, July 16, 2015, -killer-robots-the-soldiers-that-never-sleep; James Kadtke and Linton Wells II, Policy Challenges of Accelerating Technological Change: Security Policy and Strategic Implications of Parallel Scientific Revolutions, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, September 2014, p. 43-8, ; Work and Brimley, 20YY, p. 24; Defense Science Board, The Role of Autonomy in DOD Systems, pp. 56-8; Schmitt and Thurnher, "Out of the Loop," p. 237; Gordon Johnson, Tom Meyers, Russell Richards, et al., Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop, U.S. Joint Forces Command, Rapid Assessment Process Report #3-10, September 2003, p. 7, =705224; Scharre and Horowitz, An Introduction to Autonomy in Weapon Systems, p. 3; ICRC, Report of the ICRC Expert Meeting on 'Autonomous weapon systems', p. 5.
The cost of the device was important to both patients and physiotherapists, in both terms of cost for the patient to buy for personal use, and also the purchasing by clinics [18, 25, 31]. Physiotherapists would only want to purchase a device if the device benefits clearly outweighed the cost . In the UK, there are several bodies involved in making budget decisions, passing from the Department of Health and Social Care, to National Health Service then to Integrated Care systems (previously Core Clinical Commissioning Groups) [89, 90]. It can be expected that approval from commissioners for high-cost services or products, such as soft exoskeletons, will be challenging. An economic evaluation explored the cost-effectiveness of rigid exoskeletons in improving quality of life and preventing secondary hip fractures in an imagined population of people with dementia or cardiovascular diseases . The multiple scenarios demonstrated that a significant improvement in reducing hip fractures was not essential, however it was essential to improve quality of life in order to justify the cost of the exoskeleton (with the cost under £17,500) . In 2017, Ekso was provided to one NHS Trust in a package costing £98,000 (excluding VAT), which included the Ekso GT robotic exoskeleton with the SmartAssist software, training for up to four physiotherapists, a two?year warranty, supporting equipment . This cost is significantly greater than the value outlined in the cost-benefit analysis, and it is therefore evident that future exoskeletons must have greater affordability.
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Kukačka, Z.; Rosůlek, M.; Strohalm, M.; Kavan, D.; Novák, P.; Mapping protein structural changes by quantitative cross-linking. Methods, 2015, Roč. 89, č. 1 November 2015, s.112-120. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.05.027
Boštíková, Z.; Moserová, M.; Pávek, P.; Stiborová, M.; Hodek, P.; Role of dihydromyricetin in cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and carcinogen activation. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2015, Roč. 36, č. Suppl. 1, s.46-52.
Zíma, V.; Witschas, K.; Hynková, A.; Zimova, L.; Barvík, I.; Vlachova, V.; Structural modeling and patch-clamp analysis of pain-related mutation TRPA1-N855S reveal inter-subunit salt bridges stabilizing the channel open state. Neuropharmacology, 2015, Roč. 93, č. June, s.294-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.02.018 2b1af7f3a8